Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects ∼ 7% of all pregnancies and is defined as carbohydrate intolerance during gestation. This review addresses screening recommendations, diagnosis, and treatment of GDM. It is crucial to detect women with GDM because the condition can be associated with several maternal and fetal complications, such as macrosomia, birth trauma, cesarean section, and hypocalcemia, hypoglycemia, and hyperbilirubinemia in newborns. Several treatment options are discussed, as well as the need for long-term risk modification and postpartum follow-up.
Jennifer M. Perkins, MD, and Julia P. Dunn, MD, are endocrinology fellows, and Shubhada M. Jagasia, MD, is an assistant professor in the Division of Diabetes and Endocrinology at Vander-bilt University in Nashville, Tenn.
- American Diabetes Association