Microvascular and Macrovascular Complications of Diabetes

Diabetes is a group of chronic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia. Modern medical care uses a vast array of lifestyle and pharmaceutical interventions aimed at preventing and controlling hyperglycemia. In addition to ensuring the adequate delivery of glucose to the tissues of the body, treatment of diabetes attempts to decrease the likelihood that the tissues of the body are harmed by hyperglycemia.

The importance of protecting the body from hyperglycemia cannot be overstated; the direct and indirect effects on the human vascular tree are the major source of morbidity and mortality in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Generally, the injurious effects of hyperglycemia are separated into macrovascular complications (coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease, and stroke) and microvascular complications (diabetic nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy). It is important for physicians to understand the relationship between diabetes and vascular disease because the prevalence of diabetes continues to increase in the United States, and the clinical armamentarium for primary and secondary prevention of these complications is also expanding.

Microvascular Complications of Diabetes

Diabetic retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy may be the most common microvascular complication of diabetes. It is responsible for ∼ 10,000 new cases of blindness every year in the United States alone.1 The risk of developing diabetic retinopathy or other microvascular complications of diabetes depends on both the duration and the severity of hyperglycemia. Development of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes was found to be related to both severity of hyperglycemia and presence of hypertension in the U.K. Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS), and most patients with type 1 diabetes develop evidence of retinopathy within 20 years of diagnosis.2,3 Retinopathy may begin to develop as early as 7 years before the diagnosis of diabetes in patients with type 2 diabetes.1 There are several proposed pathological mechanisms by which diabetes may lead …

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