Clinical Diabetes Instructions for Authors
Updated on 27 May 2015.

How do I submit a paper to the journal?
About the Journal
Editorial Office Contact Info
Manuscript Types
Manuscript Format
Manuscript Style
Accepted Manuscripts


Please read the complete instructions for authors before submitting your manuscript to Clinical Diabetes. Manuscripts may be submitted via


The mission of Clinical Diabetes is to provide primary care providers and all clinicians involved in the care of people with diabetes with information on advances and state-of-the-art care for people with diabetes. Clinical Diabetes is also a forum for discussing diabetes-related problems in practice, medical-legal issues, case studies, digests of recent research, and patient education materials.

All submissions to Clinical Diabetes will be reviewed by the editorial team and considered for publication if they contain information that would be helpful to the journal's readership. All articles, whether invited or submitted, should be written with general practice, family practice, or internal medicine physicians in mind as the main audience. 

Clinical Diabetes adheres to the recommendations of the Council of Science Editors as they relate to editorial review procedures and policies, publication procedures and policies, and roles, responsibilities, and rights of editors. Comprehensive information related to the editorial and ethical policies of Clinical Diabetes can be found in Publication Policies and Procedures

Clinical Diabetes subscribes to the requirements stated in the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts (URM) Submitted to Biomedical Journals. Please refer to these requirements when submitting your manuscript. 


Davida F. Kruger, MSN, APRN-BC, BC-ADM, the editor-in-chief of Clinical Diabetes, began her term with the Winter 2011 issue. Manuscripts should be submitted to Please read the following instructions before submitting your manuscript. Once you have submitted your manuscript, the review process takes between 4 and 6 weeks. Failure to follow the submission instructions may delay the review process.

Davida F. Kruger, MSN, APRN-BC, BC-ADM
Henry Ford Medical Center - NCO
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Bone and Mineral Disease.
Detroit, Michigan
E-mail: dkruger1{at}

Deputy Editor:
Virginia Valentine, CNS, BC-ADM, CDE
Diabetes Network, Inc.
Albuquerque, New Mexico   
E-mail: vv{at}

Deputy Editor:
John Raymond White, Jr., PA-C, Pharm.D
Department of Pharmacotherapy
Washington State University Spokane
Spokane, Washington
E-mail: whitej{at}

Associate Editor:
Arti Bhan, MD
Department of Endocrinology
Henry Ford Health System
Detroit, Michigan
E-mail: abhan2{at}

Associate Editor:
John E. Brunner, MD
Endocrine & Diabetes Care Center
Toledo, Ohio
E-mail: endojack{at}

Associate Editor:
Stephen Brunton, MD
Cabarrus Family Medicine Residency Program
Charlotte, North Carolina
E-mail: ozdoc{at}

Associate Editor:
Robert J. Chilton, MD
Department of Cardiology
University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
San Antonio, Texas
E-mail: chiltonr{at}

Associate Editor:
Ruth Hertzman-Miller, MD, MPH
Joslin Diabetes Center
Boston, Massachusetts
Email: hertzman%1F_miller{at}, rhertzman{at}

Associate Editor:
Gayle M. Lorenzi, RN, CDE
University of California at San Diego
La Jolla, California
E-mail: glorenzi{at}

Associate Editor:
Melinda Downie Maryniuk, MEd, RD, CDE, FADA
Joslin Diabetes Center
Boston, Massachusetts
E-mail: melinda.maryniuk{at}

Associate Editor:
Heather Remtema, MPH, RD, CCRP
Department of Endocrinology
Henry Ford Health System   
Detroit, Michigan
E-mail: hremtem1{at}


Clinical Diabetes offers long feature articles, which can present either original research or reviews of the literature on a given topic in clinical diabetes care. The journal also includes several standing departments, which offer shorter articles focused on well-defined topic areas. Guidelines for each type of articles are included in separate sections below. 

Feature Articles
Feature articles on topics related to diabetes in primary practice are published in each issue of Clinical Diabetes. If the article is an invited feature, members of the editorial team will discuss content with invited authors at the time the invitation is extended. Each feature article should be 3000-5000 words long, including references. The word count for articles that contain tables, figures, or other illustrations should be adjusted down by approximately 500 words for every half-page table, figure, or illustration. (Example: if an author is planning to include two half-page tables, the total word count on the article text (not counting the tables) should be 2000-4000 to ensure enough room for the tables.)

Feature articles should follow the general guidelines set forth in this document. Authors should include a very brief (2-3 sentence) summary of the article, which will appear on the first page of the printed article in lieu of a traditional abstract. Samples articles are available on the journal website. 

Guest Editorials
Guest editorials should be opinion articles of approximately 800–1600 words in length. The articles should follow the general guidelines set forth in this document. Sample articles are available on the journal website. 

"Translating Research to Practice" Articles
Articles written for the "Translating Research to Practice" department offer summaries and discussions of current research studies related to diabetes clinical care. Each article should be approximately 1600 words long and should follow the general guidelines set forth in this document. "Translating Research to Practice" articles should be structured in the following format:

  1. Title of your article
  2. Citation for the research study on which you are writing, including all author names, full title of the research article, journal of publication, volume, page range, and year of publication
  3. Reviewed by (your name)
  4. Summary of the research article, including brief descriptions of the study objective, design, subjects, methods, results, and conclusion
  5. Discussion of the significance of this research, including its applicability to clinical diabetes care, especially in the primary practice setting
  6. References

Sample articles are available on the journal website. 

"Practical Pointers" Articles"
Practical Pointers" articles offer a discussion of the basics of some aspect of diabetes care. These articles should be 2400-4000 words long and should follow the general guidelines set forth in this document. Sample articles are available on the journal website. 

"Case Studies" Articles
Articles written for the "Case Studies" department present real patient cases from the authors' practices illustrating specific points in the care of diabetes patients. Each article should be 800-1600 words and should follow the general guidelines set forth in this document. "Case Studies" articles should be structured in the following format:

  1. Case study title
  2. Your name
  3. Brief case presentation, including symptoms at presentation, significant history, physical exam, and lab results
  4. Questions raised by this case (numbered list)
  5. Commentary
  6. Summary of the "clinical pearls" exemplified by this case (bulleted list)
  7. A brief list of references or suggested readings

Sample articles are available on the journal website. 

"Bridges to Excellence" Articles
Articles for this department focus on quality improvement initiatives. Submitted articles should provide brief vignettes describing a clinic's or institution's efforts to improve diabetes care. Any attempts to improve the health or health care of people with diabetes, regardless of their outcomes, are welcome. Articles should be 800-2400 words. Sample articles are available on the journal website. 



Title Page
Every manuscript must have an accompanying title page. The title page should include the title; the first name, middle initial, last name, and the highest academic degree of each author; affiliation (in English) of each author; and name, current address, telephone number, fax number, and e-mail address of the corresponding author.

All text and tables should be saved in Word document format. Doing so will allow our Editorial Office to verify the word count and our production staff to turn your paper (if accepted) into an article.

Please do not use headers, footers, or footnotes in your paper. 

The acknowledgments should go after the main text and before the reference list. Acknowledgments should contain brief statements of assistance, financial support, prior publication of the study in abstract form where applicable, and duality of interest disclosures. 

The reference list should go at the end of the document, after the main text and acknowledgments and before the tables. References should be numbered in the order in which they are cited in the text.

Reference numbers in the text should be in normal type and in parentheses [e.g., "In the study by Norton et al. (23)..."]. Please do not use the footnote/endnote functions found in some word processing programs.

See below for examples of how to style each reference in the reference list. 

Tables should be double spaced on separate pages and included at the end of the text document, with the table number and title indicated. Tables should be created using Word and the "Insert Table" command; please do not use tabs and/or spaces to create tables, columns, or rows. Tables with internal divisions (Tables 1A and B) should be submitted as individual tables, i.e., Tables 1 and 2. Symbols for units should be confined to column headings. Abbreviations should be kept to a minimum and defined in the table legend. For footnotes, use the following symbols consecutively, left to right, top to bottom of table: *, †, ‡, §, ||, ¶, #, **, ††, etc.

If tables are taken from other sources, the author must be able to provide written permission for reproduction obtained from the original publisher and author. 

Clinical Diabetes uses digital publishing methods throughout the journal production process. If your article is accepted, it will be published both in the printed journal and online. The following sections provide information on how to format your figures to ensure the best possible reproduction of your images. 

Size. Figures should be produced at the size they are to appear in the printed journal. Please make sure your figures will fit in one, two, or three columns in width. Multi-paneled figures should be assembled in a layout that leaves the least amount of blank space.
1 column = 13 picas wide, 2.2 in, 5.6 cm
2 columns = 28 picas wide, 4.6 in, 11.7 cm
3 columns = 41 picas, 6.8 in, 17.3 cm 

Font. At 100% size, fonts should be 8-10 points and used consistently throughout all figures. 

Text. Information on the axes should be succinct, using abbreviations where possible, and the label on the y-axis should read vertically, not horizontally. Key information should be placed in any available white space within the figure; if space is not available, the information should be placed in the legend. In general, figures with multiple parts should be marked A, B, C, etc., with a description of each panel included in the legend rather than on the figure. 

Line and bar graphs. Lines in graphs should be bold enough to be easily read after reduction, as should all symbols used in the figure. Data points are best marked with the following symbols, again assuring that they will be readily distinguishable after reduction: In the figure legend, please use words rather than the symbols; e.g., "black circles = group 1; white squares = group 2; black bars = blood glucose; white bars = C-peptide." Bars should be black or white only, unless more than two datasets are being presented; additional bars should be drawn with clear bold hatch marks or stripes, not shades of gray.

Line or bar graphs or flow charts with text should be created in black and white, not shades of gray, which are difficult to reproduce in even tones.

Reproductions. If materials (e.g., figures and/or tables) are taken from other sources, the author must be able to provide written permission for reproduction obtained from the original publisher and author. In addition, the source should be cited at the end of the figure legend. For more information, refer to Permissions: Help for Authors

Figure legends. Figure legends should be clearly numbered and included at the very end of your main text document and should not be included on the separate figure/image files. Please use words to describe symbols used in the figure; e.g., "black circles = group 1; white squares = group 2; black bars = blood glucose; white bars = C-peptide." 

Formatting digital files for print reproduction.
Computer screens, laser printers, and offset presses are significantly different devices. The ability to print your graphics well on a desktop laser printer does not mean the image can be printed successfully, or at all, on an offset press. Use applications capable of creating high-resolution TIFF, EPS, or JPEG files. It is extremely important that the files be saved at the following resolutions.

Halftones include color or grayscale figures containing pictures only, with no text or thin lines, and should be saved at 300 dpi.

Combination halftones include color or grayscale figures in combination with text and/or thin lines and should be saved at 600 dpi.

Line drawings include artwork made of solid black and white, with no tonal (gray) values, and should be saved at 1200 dpi.

Color. Color figures must be created using CMYK color only. Any other format will not be accepted. 

Electronic submission of illustrations is encouraged; however, laser-printed, camera-ready artwork may be necessary if submitted electronic files fail to meet criteria for print publishing. Hard-copy versions of figures for accepted manuscripts should be computer-generated laser prints on high-quality laser printer paper. Authors may be asked to prepare new figures if those submitted are not suitable for reproduction. Each figure must have a legend that appears in the text and not on the figure. 


Terminology and Style Articles should be written in clear, concise English following the recommendations for scientific writing found in Scientific Style and Format, the Council of Biology Editors (CBE) style manual (6th ed., 1994, Bethesda, MD, Council of Biology Editors). All accepted manuscripts will be edited according to the CBE style manual and The Chicago Manual of Style (15th ed., 2003, Chicago, IL, The University of Chicago Press) by ADA professional publications staff. The authors are responsible for all statements made in their articles or editorials, including any editing changes made by staff.

The designations type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes should be used when referring to the two major forms of diabetes. Abbreviations for diabetes, such as T2D for type 2 diabetes, should not be used. The term diabetic should not be used as a noun. Pharmaceutical agents should be listed by generic name. 

Abbreviations should be used only when necessary, e.g., for long chemical names (HEPES), procedures (ELISA), or terms used throughout the article. Abbreviate units of measure only when used with numbers. Abbreviations may be used in tables and figures. The CBE style manual contains lists of standard scientific abbreviations. 

Clinical laboratory values should be in Système International (SI) form. Kilocalories should be used rather than kilojoules. Glycated hemoglobin should be expressed as percentage of total and as standard deviation from mean control levels. 

References should be listed according to the following examples and should be numbered in the order that they are cited in the text. List up to the first six authors or editors; if there are seven or more authors/editors, list only the first three plus “et al.” Inclusive page numbers should be provided. Journal titles should be abbreviated as in the National Library of Medicine's List of Journals Indexed for Medline; for unlisted journals, complete journal titles should be provided. Material that is in press may be cited, but copies of such material may be requested. Material that has been submitted but not yet accepted for publication in a journal should not be cited as a reference. Such information can be discussed in text, followed by a parenthetical providing the researchers’ names and “unpublished observations”, e.g. (A. Ballard, unpublished observations). Authors are responsible for the accuracy of the references. 

Journal articles:
Robertson RP. Arachidonic acid metabolite regulation of insulin secretion: a role for the lipoxygenase pathway. Life Sci 1983;32:903–910

Garcia MC, Hermans MP, Henquin JC. Diet and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. II. Monounsaturated fatty acids versus carbohydrates. Am J Clin Nutr 1988;56:205–209

Supplement to journal:
Helms RB. Implications of population growth on prevalence of diabetes: a look at the future. Diabetes Care 1992;15(Suppl. 1):6–14

Ikeda H, Taketomi S. Glucose and lipid metabolism in normal and insulin resistant animals. Diabetes Metab Rev 1992;44:S16–S38

Satoh S, Gonzalez OM, Kozka IJ. Surface GLUT4 glucose transporters in rat adipose cells photolabeled in the insulin-stimulated state (Abstract). Diabetes 1992;40
(Suppl. 1):A340

Consensus statement/position statement/technical review:​
American Diabetes Association. Food labeling. Diabetes Care 1992;17:488–489

In press:​
Murer E, Boden G, Gyda M, DeLuca F. Effects of Oleate and insulin on glucose uptake, oxidation, and glucose 

E-pub ahead of print:​
Murer E, Boden G, Gyda M, DeLuca F. Effects of oleate and insulin on glucose uptake, oxidation, and glucose transporter proteins in rat adipocytes. JAMA. 19 September 2008 [Epub ahead of print]   

Bowes WA Jr. Pregnancy prevention and birth control. In Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies. Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, Eds. New York, Churchill Livingstone, 1986, p. 636–638

Bortolussi R, Seeliger HPR. Listeriosis. In Infectious Disease of the Fetus and Newborn Infant. Vol. 1, 3rd ed. Remington JS, Klein JO, Eds. Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders, 1990, p. 812–831

Berezin N. After a Loss in Pregnancy: Help for Families Affected by a Miscarriage, a Stillbirth or the Loss of a New Born. New York, Simon & Schuster, 1982

Goverment publication:​
Format varies, be sure that all pertinent information is available (i.e., authors, if applicable, department, publisher, date, title, etc.).

Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Lymphocyte microcytotoxicity technique. In NIAID Manual of Tissue Typing Techniques, 1979–1980. Washington, DC, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, 1979, p. 13 (NIH publ. no. 80-545)

Harris MI, Entmacher P. Mortality from diabetes. In Diabetes in America. Harris MI, Hamman RF, Eds. Washington, DC, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, 1985, p. 000 (DHHS publ. no. 85-1468) 

Brown JA. How New Technology Affects Diabetes Research. Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill, 1992 

Steel JM. Prepregnancy counseling and the management of the pregnant woman with diabetes. In Proceedings of the 39th Annual Advanced Postgraduate Course, Orlando, FL, 1992. Alexandria, VA, American Diabetes Association, p. 97–98 

Computer program:​
Format varies. The necessary information includes program name, name of the computer institute, location, page numbers. 

Newspaper article:​
Brown KG. New treatments for diabetes. New York Times, 12 Nov 1993: Sect. B, p. 4

Associated Press. Timing your insulin. Washington Post, 5 May 1994: Sect. 1, p. 10

Papers presented at meetings (not published):​
Kendall DM, Riddle MC, Zhuang D, Kim DD, Fineman MS, Baron AD. Effects of exenatide (exendin-4) on glycemic control and weight in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin and a sulfonylurea. Late-breaking abstract presented at the 64th Annual Meeting of the American Diabetes Association, 4–8 June 2004, at the Orange County Convention Center, Orlando, Florida

Package inserts:​
Cialis [package insert]. Indianapolis, IN, Eli Lilly & Co, 2006

Online publication:​
Beta cell function in type 2 diabetes: glucose metabolism and insulin secretion in the normal pancreas [article online], 1999. Available from Accessed 4 May 2000 

Articles published in other languages:​
Gullestad L, Jacobsen T, Dolva LO. Surface GLUT4 glucose transporters in rat adipose cells photolabeled in the insulin-stimulated state. Oui 1992;40:34 [in French] 


Copyright Assignment
The American Diabetes Association (ADA) holds the copyright on all material appearing in Clinical Diabetes. All authors must check the appropriate boxes and sign the manuscript submission form, which transfers copyright to the ADA in accordance with the Copyright Revision Act of 1976.

ADA's copyright assignment form addresses permission policies related to reuse and post-prints. Please see the revised policy below for the statement of provenance and other conditions: 

Reuse. Authors are permitted to reuse portions of their ADA-copyrighted work, including tables and figures, in their own work, and to reuse portions or all of their ADA-copyrighted work for educational purposes, without submitting a request to ADA, provided that the proper citation and copyright information is given. 

Post-prints. Authors are permitted to submit the final, accepted version of their manuscript to their funding body, such as NIH, or institution for inclusion in their funding body or institution's database, archive, or repository, or to post the final, accepted version on their personal Web site. These manuscripts may be made freely accessible to the public upon acceptance, provided that the following conditions are observed: 

  1. Post-prints must include the following statement of provenance and, once the final version has been published in the journal, a link to the final published version of the paper on the journal's Web site: "This is an author-created, uncopyedited electronic version of an article accepted for publication in Clinical Diabetes. The American Diabetes Association (ADA), publisher of Clinical Diabetes, is not responsible for any errors or omissions in this version of the manuscript or any version derived from it by third parties. The definitive publisher-authenticated version is available online at" 
  2. The version of the manuscript deposited or posted must be identical to the final accepted version, with the exception of the addition of the above statement and any changes necessary to correct errors. Authors may make changes to the posted version to correct mistakes or may issue an erratum at any time. However, the final published version of the manuscript may not be deposited, posted, or later substituted for the post-print. 

Duality of Interest
All authors must read the ADA Policy Statement on Duality of Interest provided to them by the editorial team and check the appropriate box on the manuscript submission form. Any author who has duality of interest to disclose must attach an additional statement that explains the nature of the duality or conflict of interest. Relevant duality or conflict of interest (or lack thereof) should also be disclosed in the authors' comments to the editor during the submission process. 


Accepted manuscripts will be scheduled for publication as soon as possible. Correspondence concerning the copyediting and production of accepted manuscripts should be e-mailed to Debbie Kendall, Managing Editor, Clinical Diabetes, at debbie{at} or debbiekendall{at}

Once an article is submitted, it will be substantively reviewed. A member of the editorial team will contact you if substantive revisions are necessary. Otherwise, you will be notified of acceptance, and the article will then be forwarded to Clinical Diabetes staff for copyediting for style, grammar, and clarity. The copyedited article will be e-mailed to you with any final author queries for your final revision and/or approval. Typesetting and page design occur after your final approval. Authors do not review galley proofs.