TABLE 1.

Characteristics of the Study Population and Comparison of Mean Glycemic Control and Social Supports

n (of total 49)A1C (%)Diabetes Contacts ScoreYouth Coping ScoreExtracurricular Activities ScoreParent Coping Score
Age (years) (mean 15 ± 2.1)
 Ages 12–15278.6 ± 1.03.6 ± 3.11.5 ± 1.34.2 ± 2.71.9 ± 1.5
 Ages 16–19228.7 ± 1.33.3 ± 2.91.6 ± 1.63.2 ± 2.52.2 ± 2.4
Disease duration (years) (mean 6.4 ± 3.4)
 ≤6268.7 ± 1.42.5 ± 1.7*1.2 ± 1.03.6 ± 1.91.8 ± 1.7
 ≥7238.5 ± 0.84.3 ± 3.61.7 ± 1.54.2 ± 2.82.1 ± 2.2
P <0.05, t test
r = 0.29, P <0.05
Sex
 Female248.6 ± 1.04.2 ± 3.0*1.8 ± 1.73.8 ± 2.82.5 ± 2.1
 Male258.7 ± 1.42.7 ± 2.81.4 ± 0.93.7 ± 2.81.6 ± 1.4
P <0.05, t test
Race/ethnicity
 Black410.2 ± 0.61.6 ± 1.91.5 ± 1.12.6 ± 1.91.0 ± 0.4
 Hispanic38.8 ± 0.44.0 ± 0.82.3 ± 2.33.3 ± 1.51.6 ± 1.1
 White418.5 ± 1.13.7 ± 3.11.6 ± 1.44.0 ± 2.72.3 ± 2.1
 Other1
Household income ($)
 <40,000189.4 ± 1.4*1.6 ± 1.6*0.7 ± 0.7*2.5 ± 2.3*1.1 ± 1.0*
 40,000–80,000158.1 ± 0.84.5 ± 2.82.0 ± 1.44.0 ± 2.42.1 ± 1.8
 >80,000148.3 ± 0.94.7 ± 3.82.2 ± 1.65.0 ± 2.52.9 ± 2.3
 Other: “don’t know”2
P <0.01, t testP <0.01, t testP <0.01, t testP <0.01, t testP <0.01, t test
r = –0.39, P <0.01r = 0.40, P <0.01r = 0.42, P <0.01r = 0.38, P <0.01r = 0.44, P <0.01
Parental Education
 Did not complete HS310.9 ± 1.3*1.6 ± 1.1*1.0 ± 1.2*1.2 ± 0.9*1.3 ± 1.5*
 HS diploma178.8 ± 0.92.8 ± 1.91.3 ± 0.93.1 ± 2.51.6 ± 1.1
 AA/skilled degree108.2 ± 0.93.2 ± 2.81.5 ± 1.14.0 ± 2.73.3 ± 3.1
 BA/BS degree108.2 ± 1.14.8 ± 3.02.0 ± 1.55.0 ± 2.03.4 ± 1.9
 Graduate degree78.3 ± 0.84.5 ± 4.72.8 ± 2.04.8 ± 3.33.2 ± 1.8
 Other: missing data2
r = –0.32, p <0.05r = 0.25, p <0.05r = 0.32, p <0.05r = 0.39, p <0.01r = 0.29, p <0.05
  • * P values (indicated when significant) are for t tests when examining categorical variables and for Pearson’s correlation coefficients when examining numeric variables. SES is examined numerically by using income in dollars and parental education in years. tTests are only used when there is symmetry among cell values and are only presented in terms of the significant P values.

  • Three of the black participants were at the <$40,000 income threshold (poor/working class), and one was at the >$80,000 income threshold (upper middle/upper class); one Hispanic youth was at the <$40,000 income threshold, and one was at the $40,000–$80,000 threshold, and one was at the >$80,000 threshold. There were not enough non-white participants to perform t tests.

  • AA, associate of arts; BA, bachelor of arts; BS, bachelor of science; HS, high school.