TABLE 1.

Baseline Characteristics of Look AHEAD Participants Included in Analysis by Intervention Assignment

Baseline CharacteristicDSE n = 2,483 (mean [SD] or n [%])ILI n = 2,503 (mean [SD] or n [%])P
Age (years)58.8 (6.9)58.6 (6.8)0.19
Sex
 Female1,485 (59.8)1,485 (59.3)0.73
 Male998 (40.2)1,018 (40.7)
Race/Ethnicity
 African American386 (15.6)390 (15.6)0.89
 Asian/Pacific Islander20 (0.8)29 (1.2)
 Hispanic328 (13.2)326 (13.0)
 Native American127 (5.1)130 (5.2)
 Non-Hispanic white1,572 (63.3)1,579 (63.1)
 Other/multiple50 (2.0)49 (2.0)
BMI (kg/m2)
 <30349 (14.1)395 (15.8)0.11
 30 to <35865 (34.8)889 (35.5)
  35 to <40717 (28.9)655 (26.2)
 ≥40552 (22.2)564 (22.5)
Fitness (METS)7.18 (2.0)7.2 (1.9)0.63
A1C (% [mmol/mol])
 <7.0 (<31)1,117 (45.0)1,158 (46.3)0.17
 7.0–8.9 (31–74)1,118 (45.0)1,133 (45.3)
 9.0–11.0 (75–97)248 (10.0)212 (8.5)
Insulin use
 No2,094 (84.3)2,134 (85.3)0.36
 Yes389 (15.7)369 (14.7)
Metformin use
 No994 (40.0)972 (38.5)0.39
 Yes1,489 (60.0)1,531 (61.2)
Acarbose use
 No2,469 (99.4)2,493 (99.6)0.40
 Yes14 (0.6)10 (0.4)
Other diabetes medications*
 No2,014 (81.1)2,055 (82.1)0.37
 Yes469 (18.9)448 (17.9)
Hypertension
 No429 (17.3)396 (15.8)0.17
 Yes2,054 (82.7)2,107 (84.2)
Alcohol intake
 None1,676 (67.5)1,701 (68.0)0.83
 <1/day (<21 oz/week)509 (20.5)496 (19.8)
 ≥1/day (≥21 oz/week)298 (12.0)306 (12.2)
Current smoking
 No2,377 (95.7)2,391 (95.5)0.72
 Yes106 (4.3)112 (4.5)
Prior CVD
 No2,151 (86.6)2,149 (85.9)0.43
 Yes332 (13.4)354 (14.1)
Depression (BDI score ≥11)
 No2,175 (87.6)2,135 (85.3)0.02
 Yes308 (12.4)368 (14.7)
  • * Other diabetes medications defined as not metformin, not insulin, or not acarbose diabetes drugs. Thus, the “no” category in this item includes insulin, metformin, and acarbose users.