TABLE 2.

Mean A1C (%) by Participant Characteristics

Participant CharacteristicsMean (SD)nP
Sex0.745
 Male8.6 (1.8)24
 Female8.7 (1.5)35
Race0.016
 African American or Hispanic9.5 (1.7)14
 White8.3 (1.5)43
Education0.004*
 Some high school9.5 (1.5)8
 High school degree or some college9.0 (1.7)31
 Associate’s degree or higher7.8 (1.3)20
Annual household income (USD)0.568
 <20,0009.1 (1.7)19
 20,000–39,9998.4 (1.7)17
 40,000–79,9998.9 (1.7)9
 ≥80,0008.3 (1.5)9
Medical insurance0.005*
 Medicaid or none9.7 (1.7)7
 Medicare8.7 (1.7)26
 Private or Workers’ Compensation8.2 (1.4)26
Injection method0.736
 Pen8.6 (1.6)44
 Syringe8.8 (1.7)15
Diabetes type0.034
 Type 18.0 (1.0)13
 Type 28.9 (1.8)46
Insulin regimen0.567
 Fixed dose9.2 (1.0)7
 Multiple injections with algorithm8.7 (1.8)48
 Insulin-to-carbohydrate ratio8.1 (0.9)4
Confident in determining correct dose0.005*
 Not at all0
 Somewhat9.6 (0.9)10
 Moderately9.7 (2.4)9
 Very8.2 (1.4)40
Confident in proper injection0.115*
 Not at all0
 Somewhat9.8 (0.5)4
 Moderately9.1 (2.2)6
 Very8.5 (1.6)49
Administers correct insulin dose0.334*
 Always8.5 (1.8)33
 Usually8.9 (1.6)18
 Sometimes or never9.0 (1.2)8
Administers insulin at correct times0.007*
 Always8.0 (1.2)17
 Usually8.7 (1.7)29
 Sometimes or never9.6 (1.8)13
Insulin adjustment required0.296
 Always9.2 (2.1)13
 Usually8.3 (1.5)18
 Sometimes or never8.7 (1.5)28
Number of hypoglycemic episodes in the past year0.712
 08.7 (1.7)52
 ≥18.9 (1.0)7
Diabetes numeracy: total correct0.116*
 0–19.1 (1.8)23
 28.5 (1.7)20
 38.3 (1.2)16
Skin problems at injection site0.208
 None8.5 (1.5)36
 Lipohypertrophy and other problems9.0 (23)23
Rotates injection sites0.359
 Always8.6 (1.7)43
 Not always9.0 (1.5)15
  • * P values associated with test for linear trend.