TABLE 1.

Participants’ Self-Reported Insulin-Related Attitudes and Behaviors

Total (n = 60)Pen (n = 44)Syringe (n = 16)P
Confident in determining correct dose (%)1.00*
 Not at all0.00.00.0
 Somewhat16.715.918.8
 Moderately15.015.912.5
 Very68.368.268.8
Confident in proper injection (%)1.00*
 Not at all0.00.00.0
 Somewhat6.76.86.3
 Moderately10.011.46.3
 Very83.381.887.5
Administers correct insulin dose (%)0.778
 Always56.754.562.5
 Usually30.029.531.3
 Sometimes or never13.315.96.3
Administers insulin at correct times (%)0.096
 Always28.320.550.0
 Usually50.054.537.5
 Sometimes or never21.725.012.5
Insulin adjustment required (%)0.144
 Always21.715.937.5
 Usually30.029.531.3
 Sometimes or never48.354.531.3
Number of hypoglycemic episodes in the past year (%)0.370
 088.390.981.3
 ≥111.79.118.8
Diabetes numeracy: total correct (%)0.863
 010.09.112.5
 128.327.331.3
 233.336.425.0
 328.327.331.3
Skin problems at injection site (%)0.060
 None61.754.581.3
 Lipohypertrophy and other problems38.345.518.7
Rotates injection sites (%)0.738
 Always74.672.780.0
 Not always25.427.320.0
Checks expiration date (%)0.951
 Always43.142.943.8
 Not always56.957.156.3
Uses expired insulin (%)0.885
 No86.486.087.5
 Yes13.614.012.5
Correct knowledge of insulin duration (%)0.018
 No16.99.337.5
 Yes83.190.762.5
Brought glucose meter (%)0.760
 Yes66.768.262.5
  • * Fisher’s exact test; other P values reflect Χ2 analyses.