TABLE 2.

Drug Therapies Studies in African-American, Hispanic, or Asian Populations and Included in the Article Reviewed (828)

MedicationObserved Racial/Ethnic Difference
SulfonylureasAssociated with increased arterial stiffness in African Americans (9)
AcarboseImproved glycemic control (A1C reduction of 1.05%) in Asians who were inadequately controlled on a sulfonylurea; not tested in African Americans or Hispanics (10)
VogliboseTested only in Asians and found to be inferior to sitagliptin and dosed more frequently; caused more adverse events without better glycemic lowering (A1C reduction of 0.7% for sitagliptin and 0.3% for voglibose (11)
Miglitol1.9% reduction in A1C in African Americans (12); 0.26% A1C reduction in Hispanics (13)
SitagliptinA1C reductions of 0.9% (14) and 1.0% (15) in Asians; not tested in African Americans and Hispanics
SaxagliptinStudied in African Americans and Hispanics but no subgroup analyses were performed; A1C reduction of 0.84% in Asians with few side effects (16)
LinagliptinA1C reductions of 0.63% in Hispanics (17) and 0.58% in African Americans (18)
VildagliptinImproved glycemic control in Asians when added to metformin (19)
AlogliptinA1C reductions in Japanese patients when added to voglibose (20)
MetforminAfrican Americans had better A1C lowering than non-Hispanic whites (21); increased arterial stiffness in African Americans (9)
PioglitazoneImproved β-cell function and insulin secretion and supressed gluconeogenesis in Mexican Americans (22)
RosiglitazoneIncreased hepatic insulin extraction and improved glycemic control in African Americans with impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes (23)
NateglinideThere is one publication on the use of this drug in Asian patients, but no A1C data were reported. (8)
RepaglinideThere is one publication on the use of this drug in Asian patients, but no A1C data were reported. (8)
ExenatideA1C reductions reported in Asians (24)
LiraglutideA1C reductions reported in Asians (25)
LixisenatideA1C reductions reported in Asians with diabetes ineffectively controlled with insulin or metformin ± a sulfonylurea (26)
DapagliflozinA1C reductions of 0.41–0.45% in Asians (27)
EmpagliflozinStudied in African-American and Asian populations, but no data on A1C reduction were reported (28)
ColesevelamTested in Hispanic patients, but no data on A1C reduction were reported (8)