TABLE 1

Characteristics of Patients With Type 1 Diabetes According to the Presence and Number of MSKD Components

Total(n = 140)MSKD−(n = 100)MSKD+(n = 40)1 MSKD(n = 21)2+ MSKDs(n = 19)
Age, years43.4 ± 15.439.5 ± 15.353.0 ± 11.052.4 ± 13.253.7 ± 8.2
Diabetes duration, years22.5 ± 12.719.0 ± 11.531.2 ± 11.329.8 ± 13.232.7 ± 8.9
Age at diabetes diagnosis, years20.9 ± 12.920.5 ± 13.421.8 ± 11.422.6 ± 13.221.0 ± 9.1
BMI, kg/m226.3 ± 4.525.9 ± 4.827.2 ± 3.826.4 ± 3.928.1 ± 3.6
Mean A1C, %*7.6 ± 1.17.6 ± 1.07.6 ± 1.37.4 ± 1.67.7 ± 1.0
Men/women67/73 (48/52)49/51 (49/51)18/22 (45/55)11/10 (52/48)7/12 (37/63)
CSII/MDI92/48 (66/34)71/29 (71/29)21/19 (53/47)15/6 (71/29)6/13 (32/68)
FGM/SMBG125/15 (89/11)88/12 (88/12)37/3 (93/7)20/1 (95/5)17/2 (90/10)
≥1 Complication48 (34.3)21 (21.0)27 (67.5)12 (57.1)15 (79.0)
Diabetic retinopathy43 (30.7)16 (16.0)27 (67.5)12 (57.1)15 (79.0)
Diabetic nephropathy10 (7.1)5 (5.0)5 (12.5)4 (19.1)1 (5.3)
Diabetic neuropathy9 (6.4)3 (3.0)6 (15.0)3 (14.3)3 (15.8)
CVD9 (6.4)2 (2.0)7 (17.5)1 (4.8)6 (31.6)§
Smoking status
Current smokers19 (13.6)16 (16.0)3 (7.5)2 (9.5)1 (5.3)
Former smokers36 (25.7)21 (21.0)15 (37.5)10 (47.6)5 (26.3)
Never smokers85 (60.7)63 (63.0)22 (55.0)9 (42.9)13 (68.4)
Age at first MSKD diagnosis, years47.3 ± 11.047.0 ± 13.247.5 ± 8.2
  • Data are mean ± SD or n (%). CSII, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion; MDI, multiple daily injections; SMBG, self-monitoring of blood glucose.

  • * Mean of the last three available values.

  • P <0.001 versus MSKD−.

  • P <0.05 versus MSKD−. §P <0.05 versus 1 MSKD.