TABLE 1

Sample Characteristics (n = 443,932)

Independent VariablesValueDependent VariablesValue
Age in years, mean (SD)77.19 (7.88)Use of prevention services
SexUsed any prevention services401,312 (90.4)
 Male195,073 (43.9)Did not use prevention services42,620 (9.6)
 Female248,859 (56.1)Weighted PSMU, mean (SD)113.81 (161.08)
RaceEM costs, $, mean (SD)1,100.23 (2,600)
 White364,156 (82.0)EM events, mean (SD)10.97 (26.4)
 Black64,475 (14.5)EM annual total costs, $493,006,677
 A/PI5,564 (1.3)EM annual total events4,868,904
 Hispanic8,185 (1.8)EM cost/event, $101.25
 AIAN1,552 (0.3)EM weight4.93
Part D subsidyIMG costs, $, mean (SD)279.61 (462.11)
 Full subsidy68,048 (15.3)IMG events, mean (SD)5.49 (7.91)
 Partial subsidy14,733 (3.3)IMG annual total costs, $125,482,451
 No subsidy361,151 (81.4)IMG annual total events2,461,186
Patient locationIMG cost/event, $50.98
 Rural46,882 (10.6)IMG weight, weight2.48
 Urban397,050 (89.4)LAB costs, $, mean (SD)303.81 (502.04)
Combinations of diabetes and MCCsLAB events, mean (SD)14.81 (21.45)
 Diabetes109,901 (24.8)LAB annual total costs, $136,375,532
 Diabetes + CHF25,534 (5.8)LAB annual total events6,644,491
 Diabetes + cancer17,667 (4.0)LAB cost/event, $20.52
 Diabetes + COPD25,927 (5.8)LAB weight1
 Diabetes + stroke10,700 (2.4)Part B costs, $, mean (SD)650.03 (650.09)
 Diabetes + CKD23,790 (5.4)Part B events, mean (SD)7.65 (7.82)
 Diabetes + CHF/COPD21,623 (4.9)Part B annual total costs, $291,679,736
 Diabetes + CHF/CKD20,185 (4.5)Part B annual total events3,433,480
 Diabetes + CHF/COPD/CKD27,335 (6.2)Part B cost/event, $84.95
 Diabetes + CHF/COPD/stroke/CKD15,408 (3.5)Part B weight4.14
 Diabetes + all other combinations of MCCs145,862 (32.9)
  • All values are n (%) except where otherwise noted.