TABLE 3

Reported Benefits of mHealth Apps Versus Usual Care to Manage GDM

OutcomeAppControl GroupIntervention GroupPSummary of Results
Cesarean delivery, %Dnurse (37)33.325NSOne out of five studies showed reduction in cesarean delivery.
GDm-health (38)46.126.70.005
Glucose Buddy (39)33.320NS
MobiGuide (40)25.110.5NS*
Pregnant+ (41)22.18.8NS
ComplianceDnurse (37)70.4 ± 10.183.3 ± 12.5<0.001All studies demonstrated an improvement in compliance.
GDm-health (38)61.279.5P not reported (odds ratio 2.44, 95% CI 1.29–4.61)
Glucose Buddy (39)66 ± 0.2884 ± 0.16<0.001
MobiGuide (41)0.87 ± 0.31.01 ± 0.1<0.05
Mean blood glucose§GDm-health (38)93.394.8NSOne-third of studies demonstrated a reduction in mean blood glucose.
Glucose Buddy (39)112.6 ± 7.4105.1 ± 8.6<0.001
MobiGuide (40)111.6 ± 8.7114.3 ± 7.6NS
Patient satisfactionGDm-health (38)Highly satisfied based on responses to questionnaire; 85% would consider using appHighly satisfied based on responses to questionnaire; 95% would use app again; 98.3% would recommend app to othersNSPatient satisfaction was high across all five studies.
Glucose Buddy (39)Highly satisfied based on responses to questionnaire; 80% reported ease of use
MobiGuide (40)Highly satisfied based on responses to questionnaire
Pregnant+ (41)63.5% agreed that apps encourage engagement in health84.4% agreed that apps encourage engagement in healthNS
  • * Percentages for method of delivery (cesarean, operative, spontaneous) were pooled, resulting in no statistically significant differences. Individual percentages are provided in this table.

  • When data were stratified by parity, rates were not statistically significant (P = 0.21 for primiparous, P = 0.55 for multiparous).

  • Compliance is defined as the number of measurements downloaded/number of measurements expected; reported as mean % ± SD (Dnurse and Glucose Buddy), % (GDm-health), or number of measurements downloaded/number of measurements expected ± SD (MobiGuide).

  • § Reported as mean fasting blood glucose (GDm-health) or mean ± SD (Glucose Buddy and MobiGuide).

  • Percentages were based on single, unvalidated question.